)Socio-Political Structure

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1) Inca society was organized from the Emperor and the Royal family down to the peasants.
( Corrick, James A., page 34)
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2) The Inca ran based on a totalitarian style government
◘ the Sapa Inca was the head of gorvernment
◘ even after he had died, the inca believed that he stills governs his lands
(http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/incas/collier.htm)

3) The Inca's called there empire Tawantinsuyu or Land of Four Quarters.
(http://www.sheboyganfalls.k12.wi.us/schools/middleschool/library/Shikowski%20Inca%20Civilization%20Final.htm)

4) Each family received land;
◘ used it for farming and herding
◘ amount of land the family received was based on the number of family members
◘ as a household grew or decreased in size, land was either given or taken away

5) Marriage:
◘ villagers tended to marry one another rather then persons from other villages
◘ nobles were permitted to marry half sisters
◘ Inca emperor made one of his full sisters his principle wife (was allowed to have as many wives as he pleased)
◘ the number of wives a man had was an indication of his social status

http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/dept/d10/asb/aymara/weaving.jpeg
6) Inca community:
◘ called an ayllu
◘ villages were composed of two or more ayllu
(http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/incaempire3c.htm)
◘ everyone belonged to an ayllu
the families that belonged to the same ayllu shared land crops and resources
(http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/incas/collier.htm)
◘ age grade system with twelve ranks - pass from one grade to the next according to age
- most important age – married adult, fully responsible worker, tax payer
(http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/incaempire3c.htm)


7) Land:
◘ divided into four main territorial divisions (suyus)
- Chinchaysuyu (Northwest), Antisuyu (Northeast), Qontisuyu (Southwest), Qollasuyu (Southeast)
- each territory had its own province and capital
- Cuzco center of all four territories (Capital city)
http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/incaempire3.htm
◘ all land in the empire was owned by the Inca ruler.


8) Religion:
◘ human and animal sacrifices
- animal sacrifices were more common, involved slitting of the throat and burning the corpse
- human sacrifices involved strangling then slitting the throat and cutting out the still beating heart
◘ believed in Sky Gods
- Inti – most important god, founder of the Inca Royal Lineage, God of the Sun
(http://ea.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0213440-00)
◘ believed in reincarnation
http://www.nativosite.com/incas.html


9) Incan Moral Code:
ama suwa (do not steal)
ama llulla (do not lie)
ama quella (do not be lazy)
http://www.nativosite.com/incas.html

◘ each Inca village had a huacas - a sacred place or object
◘ would give offerings to the huacas
(http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/incaempire3e.htm)

10) Crimes and Punishment:
◘ punishments were extreme
◘ thrown off a cliff if you insulted a priest, god or the Sapa Inca
if you were caught steeling you would be hung by your hands or feet and stoned
(http://incas.mrdonn.org/quickhistory.html)


(http://www.le.ac.uk/archaeology/rug/image_collection/cd05/013.jpg)
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TAHUANTINSUYU
You were born in a small village...


As a Boy...

As a baby, carried everywhere with your mother. When you are about two, your hair is cut for the first time at a special ceremony and you are given a childhood name. As soon as you begin to walk you are to help your parent with household chores.

At age 5 you spend most of the time with your father.

At age 9 work a lot, herding llamas and alpacas, gathers firewood and helping in the fields.

At age 14 you are given your breechcloth (which has been made by your mother) in a public ceremony. Wearing this cloth is a symbol of
entering manhood and you are given your permanent name.

At age 25 your wife is chosen from your ayllu (community/village) by your curaca (village leader).You spend most of the time working in the field and are required to preform mit'a (part time work on government projects)

At age 50 you no longer have to participate in the mit'a requirement. Your needs are supplied by the ayllu and by the government.
In return you are expected to preform small tasks.

When you die your body is buried along with many of your possessions. At your funeral your relatives wear black, sing laments, do
mournful dances and tell stories about your life.

As a Girl...


As a baby, carried everywhere with your mother. When you are about two, your hair is cut for the first time at a special ceremony and you are given a childhood name. As soon as you begin to walk you are to help your parent with household chores.

At age 5 you spend most of your time with your mother helping her with her tasks.

At age 9 you work most of the time spinning thread, gathering plants for use as dyes and medicines, gathering firewood, helping prepare
food and helping take care of your younger brothers and sisters.

At age 14 your family holds a ceremony celebrating your becoming of a woman and you receive your permanent name.

At age 16 and 20 you get married and your husband is chosen form your ayllu by your curaca. You and your husband move into your
own house. You spend most of your time taking care of the children, cooking and making cloth. You also work in the field.

At age 50 your needs are supplied by your ayllu and the government. In return you are expected to preform only light household chores.

When you die your body is buried along with many of your possessions. At your funeral your relatives wear black, sing laments, do
mournful dances and tell stories about your life.
(Hinds, 57)






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